The American Medical Women’s Association advocates to bring under-addressed issues to the forefront of the national agenda.
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Physicians Against the Trafficking of Humans (PATH)Visit the PATH Website
- Welcome to PATH
- Educational Materials
- Screening Tools
- Further Reading
- Get Involved
- Monthly Newsletter
- Contact Us
In 2014, AMWA founded Physicians Against the Trafficking of Humans (PATH) to help educate physicians, residents, and medical students about issues surrounding human sex trafficking.
To help medical professionals better care for victims of human trafficking through
- Enhancing awareness of the scope of the problem
- Identifying at-risk patients by utilizing victim-centered interviewing techniques
- Providing and promoting trauma-informed care
- Equipping health professionals to intervene safely on behalf of patients
- Connecting patients, providers, clinics, and hospitals to resources.
In 2012, AMWA President, Dr. Gayatri Devi, identified human sex trafficking as an important issue for the organization to address. This led to the formation of the Human Trafficking Committee by Dr. Suzanne Harrison and Dr. Holly Atkinson (co-chairs). The committee authored AMWA’s position statement in this area. Dr. Kanani Titchen, then AMWA Resident Division President, conducted a survey to identify healthcare providers’ knowledge in this area and found that knowledge to be significantly lacking. These findings led to the creation of a series of educational videos and an interactive website to educate medical professionals about sex trafficking victims. PATH has also conducted webinars and supported local conferences on the issue of human sex trafficking. More about the history of PATH click here.
These videos are available for viewing and are accredited for 0.5 AMA PRA Category I credits. Click here for the course Doctors: Learn How to Recognize Victims of Child Sex Trafficking.
Elizabeth Berdan, MD, MS
Julia Geynisman, MD
Mollie Gordon, MD
Kanani Titchen, MD, FAAP
Advocacy Chair – Miriam Tarrash
Education Chair – Michelle Lyman
Research Co-Chairs – Hayoung Lee and Kristina Borham
Undergraduate Chair – Alexandra Shumyatsky
Administrative & Research Assistant – Sarah Hofer, MPH
PATH IN THE MEDIA
- AMWA’s PATH Initiative Featured on The Hidden Tears Project Website (May 21, 2018)
- Read the article by Politico about the Summit here (September 21, 2015)
- Most trafficking victims see a doctor, but do doctors know how to help? (May 5, 2015)
- AMWA: Recognizing human-trafficking victims (April 27, 2015)
- Yahoo News: Most Doctors Couldn’t Spot A Human-Trafficking Victim If They Saw One. Could You? (March 18, 2015)
- TEDx talk “How to spot human trafficking” by PATH Co-Chair Dr. Kanani Titchen
SUSTAIN- Stand Up to Sex Trafficking: Awareness, Implementation, and Networking
SUSTAIN is a CME-accredited training through the American Medical Women’s Association, Physicians Against the Trafficking of Humans (AMWA-PATH). SUSTAIN training:
- is 4 hours long
- is FREE
- grants 3.75 AMA PRA Category 1 credits to participants.
We’ve led trainings in NYC, in Chicago, Philadelphia, Honolulu, Houston, Phoenix, Oakland, and Sacramento. In addition to our PowerPoint curriculum, our training invites community partners and local stakeholders to provide practical materials and local expertise on human trafficking specific to the city and region. We feel this is critical to training health care professionals.
PATH Co-Chairs Elizabeth Berdan MD, Julia Geynisman MD, Molly Gordon MD, Kanani Titchen MD
Guests include Holly Atkinson MD, Whitney Hood JD, Mary Reissinger Psy.D., Aisha Mays MD (MISSSEY), Ron Chambers MD (Dignity Health Methodist Family Medicine Residency Program), Rachel Robitz MD (UC Davis Medical Center), Christine Cesa (Coalition to Abolish Slavery & Trafficking – CAST LA)
To schedule a training, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Upcoming SUSTAIN training events & registrations are listed below:
Register Indianapolis, IN, Sep 15: https://iu.cloud-cme.com/
The curriculum covers:
- What Is Sex Trafficking?
- Where Is Sex Trafficking?
- How Are Humans Trafficked?
- Why Should We Care?
- Sex Trafficking & Health Care
- What Can We Do?
- Barriers to Care: What Are They?
- The Physician’s Dilemma: Now What?
- The PATH to recovery
- Describe scope and prevalence of the problem of sex trafficking in the United States
- Recognize the warning signs that raise suspicion for possible sex trafficking victimization
- Incorporate screening of suspected victims of trafficking into routine practice
- Clinically evaluate and treat any patient suspected of being sex trafficked
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Indiana University School of Medicine and American Medical Women’s Association, Physicians Against the Trafficking of Humans. The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this live activity for a maximum of 3.75 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Indiana University School of Medicine has been approved by the Indiana Social Worker, Marriage and Family Therapist and Mental Health Counselor Board to provide Category I Continuing Education program. This activity qualifies for 3.75 Category I CEU as outlined by the Indiana Behavioral Health and Human Services Licensing Board.
All trainings are FREE thanks to our generous donors.
Toolkit: created by Michelle Lyman, Kashmira Chawla, and Carmen Hans
Q: What is the PATH Toolkit?
A: This page is a comprehensive list of some of the growing resources for healthcare providers and student of all health professions on anti-human trafficking. The resources listed include both general information such as key definitions as well as links to additional websites, institutions, and literature. The page answers some common questions regarding human trafficking and healthcare with useful resources available to the healthcare community as well as organizing some additional resources commonly cited into categories based on factors such as education, advocacy, research articles, occupation, and others. Listed are the top three resources for quick access, with others listed below to provide additional information. If you have any suggestions for additional resources or a link you would like to share, please e-mail AMWAPathstudents@gmail.com
Q: What is human trafficking?
A: One of the most commonly cited definitions of human trafficking is from the United Nation’s Palermo Protocol and is as follows:
“The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.”
Q: Who is trafficked? Where is this happening?
A: One of best resources for updated information on the number of people trafficked in the United States as reported through the National Human Trafficking Resources hotline is through the statistics published by the Polaris Project.
Q: Are my patients potentially trafficked persons? What should I do?
A: Below are some materials that are designed to provide more detailed description of vital skills for identifying and responding to human trafficking in a healthcare setting.
Click here to see past and upcoming PATH events.
SUSTAIN & Our Community Partners
- Nationalities Service Center
- Dawn’s Place, Philadelphia
- The Salvation Army, Greater Philadelphia, a co-chair of the Philadelphia Anti-Human Trafficking Coalition
- The Delaware Legal Aid Society
- Justice At Work, formerly known as Friends of Farmworkers
- Pacific Alliance to Stop Slavery (PASS)
- Susannah Wesley Community Center
- Hawaii State Coalition Against Domestic Violence
- The Office of Sex Trafficking Intervention Research (STIR)
- Florence Crittenton Family-Centered Support
- Maricopa County Attorney’s Office – Attorney Lacey Gray is assigned to the Sex Crimes West Bureau, Special Victims Division
- Training and Resources United to Stop Trafficking (TRUST)
- H.E.A.T.Watch (Human Exploitation And Trafficking Watch)
- MISSEY (Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting, and Serving Sexually Exploited Youth)
- San Francisco Collaborative Against Human Trafficking (SFCAHT)
- Survivors Healing, Advising, and Dedicated to Empowerment (S.H.A.D.E.)
- Freedom House
- TEDx Talk: How to Spot Human Trafficking, presented by Dr. Kanani Titchen (12 minutes)
- Video with perspectives from a human trafficking survivor (23 minutes)
- Watch PATH co-founder, Dr. Kanani Titchen, discuss sex trafficking here (1:46 minutes)
- PATH Introduction to Human Sex Trafficking video (10:54 minutes)
- Very Young Girls – Documentary expose on commercial sex exploitation of young girls and their treatment by police in NYC, available on Netflix, view trailer here (1 hr 21 min)
Films/Videos About Human Trafficking That Are Worth Watching
- “The Whistleblower” starring Rachel Weisz
- “Very Young Girls” with Rachel Lloyd, Vanessa Redgrave, David Strathairn, Monica Bellucci, Benedict Cumberbatch
- “I Am Jane Doe”
- “The Chosen Ones”
- “The Price of Sex”
- “In Plain Sight”
See resources to learn more about trafficking and share information with other healthcare providers in your community here. Visit the links below for information on continuing education modules on the topic, pamphlets to distribute to other healthcare professionals, and more.
- PATH-AMWA: www.doc-path.org — video modules with Dr. Julia Geynisman (Northwestern), Dr. Holly Atkinson (CUNY), Dr. Angela Diaz (Mount Sinai), Dr. Kanani Titchen (St. Barnabas), Lori Cohen Esq (Sanctuary for Families), Rachel Lloyd (GEMS), Hugh Organ MS (Covenant House), and with trafficking survivors “Leela” and “Sarah”
- Polaris/NHTRC: traffickingresourcecenter.org/nhtrc-hhs-online-trainings – online training and resources
- HEAL: Anti-Trafficking Education Initiatives – list of anti-trafficking educational resources
- SOAR Health and Human Services online training module for CME credit
- Christian Medical and Dental Association Online Education/Enduring Material
- Catholic Health Initiatives: Human Trafficking and the Role of the Healthcare Provider – online modules
- Stanford University: humantraffickingmed.stanford.edu/ – online resources
- Mt. Sinai Hospital: Emergency Medicine Physician Trafficking Education – guide on caring for trafficked persons in the ED
- Dignity Health Human Trafficking Response Program Shared Learnings Manual (May 2017)
- Protocol Toolkit for Developing a Response to Victims of Human Trafficking in Health Care Settings
If you suspect or confirm that your patient is a victim of human trafficking, call 1-888-373-7888 or text “BeFree” (233733). You can also report cases on the National Human Trafficking Resources Center website.
Identification and Screening Tools. If you suspect that your patient might be trafficked, consider using one of the following screening tools to ask further questions and assess the situation.
- USDHHS Rescue and Restore Campaign – Trafficking Victims Identification and Screening Tools, 1 page pdf with screening tool questions available
- Polaris/NHTRC Trafficking Victim Identification Tool – Links to various assessment tools and information for law enforcement and health providers.
- Ohio Human Trafficking Taskforce: Human Trafficking Screening Tool – manual with interview guidelines and questions as well as key definitions
- Loyola University Chicago Center for the Human Rights of Children – Screening tool for children on page 51 with accompanying red flags for clinical encounters provided on pages 47-48
- VERA Institute for Justice screening tool
- Adult Human Trafficking Screening Tool and Guide by HHS Administration for Children and Families
Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector by the Institute of Medicine: This guide from the Institute of Medicine/ National Research Council Report includes definitions of key terms and an overview of risk factors and consequences; barriers to identifying victims and survivors as well as opportunities for overcoming these barriers; examples of current practices in the health care sector; and recommendations aimed at identifying, preventing, and responding to these crimes.
Caring for Trafficked Persons: Guidance for Health Providers by the International Organization of Migration: The International Organization for Migration created this guide with support from the UN Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking. It provides advice for the healthcare professional seeking practical skills to understand, identify, and approach trafficking.
Human Trafficking: Guidebook on Identification, Assessment and Response in the Health Care Setting: Mass Gen and the Massachusetts Med Society published a manual for healthcare providers on human trafficking to describe the health effects of trafficking and guide practitioners in assessing at-risk and trafficked individuals. It is available for download.
Human Trafficking: Review of Educational Resources for Health Professionals: Review of current human trafficking educational resources by the American Journal of Preventative Medicine
The IOM Handbook on Direct Assistance for Victims of Human Trafficking: by the International Organization for Migration
The Mental Health Aspects of Trafficking in Human Beings: Set of Minimum Standards: Aimm to help the implementation of comprehensive and coordinated psychosocial care of trafficked persons from the time of their rescue to throughout their reintegration process.
National Institute of Justice: Needs assessment for service providers and trafficking victims. This report provides facts about sex trafficking in the United States and healthcare needs.
Trauma Informed Care Toolkit: document is a helpful list of websites and resources from various agencies relating to a number of specialties, types of trauma, and patient populations.
US Department of Health and Human Services: Report on medical treatment of victims of sexual assault and domestic violence and its applicability to victims of human trafficking.
Beck ME, Lineer MM, Melzer-Lange M, et al. Medical Providers’ Understanding of Sex Trafficking and Their Experience With At-Risk Patients. Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):895-902.
Grace AM, Lippert S, Collins K. Educating Health Care Professionals on Human Trafficking. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014 Dec;30(12):856-61.
Dovydaitis T. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2010 Sep-Oct; 55(5): 462–467.
Konstantopoulos WM, Ahn R, Alpert EJ, et al. An International Comparative Public Health Analysis of Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls in Eight Cities: Achieving a More Effective Health Sector Response. J Urban Health. 2013 Dec; 90(6): 1194–1204.
Beck ME, Lineer MM, Melzer-Lange M, et al. Medical providers’ understanding of sex trafficking and their experience with at-risk patients. Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):895-902.
Zimmerman C, Hossain M, Yun K, et al. The health of trafficked women: A survey of women entering posttrafficking services in Europe. Am J Public Health.2008;98:55–9.
Kiss L, Pocock NS, Naisanguansri V, et al. Health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam: an observational cross-sectional study. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Mar;3(3):e154-61.
How do I connect with other healthcare providers and professionals to fight human trafficking?
There are many organizations from a variety of fields focused on the prevention of human trafficking and advocating for the rights of survivors. Below are some global, national, and local organizations and federal agencies and links to their specific Anti-Human Trafficking initiatives.
- National Human Trafficking Resources Center
- Polaris Project – anti-trafficking organization
- HEAL Trafficking – expansive description and links to advocacy, education, and resources related to human trafficking
- Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking
- ECPAT-USA – anti-trafficking policy organization
- Freedom Network USA – national coalition of anti-trafficking service providers
- Futures without Violence – advocacy, training and technical assistance for trafficking victims
- Physicians Against the Trafficking of Humans (PATH)– CME Credit available here, Search – Doctors: Learn How to Recognize Victims of Trafficking
- American Medical Women’s Association (AMWA)
- American Medical Association (AMA): How Physicians Can Identify, Asssist Trafficking Victims
- American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP): Policy Statement on Human Trafficking
- Mt. Sinai Hospital: www.humantraffickinged.com – Resources for EM physicians
- American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
- American Academy of Pediatrics: Child Sex Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation Clinical Report
- American Psychological Association: Resolution on Assisting Victims of Human Trafficking
- Christian Medical and Dental Association (CMDA): Commission on Human Trafficking
- UCLA: Anti-Trafficking and Human Rights Coalition
- National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
- Cybertipline – hotline/online report crimes against children
- U.S. Federal government: Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: U.S. Office of Trafficking in Persons
- U.S. Department of Homeland Security
- U.S. Department of State: Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
- U.S. Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center
- U.S. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement
- U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS): Human Trafficking
- U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)
- U.S. Department of Labor
- Bureau of International Labor Affairs – Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service: www.ncjrs.gov/app/topics/topic.aspx?Topicid=82
- Human Trafficking Pro Bono Legal Center
BY STATE (U.S.A.):
- U.S. Office for Victims of Crime: Matrix of human trafficking services and task forced by state
- MISSSEY – survivor-led organizaiton to combat human trafficking of children throughout California
- West Coast Children’s Clinic – C-change clinic for sexually exploited minors
- Los Angeles: Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking
- Oakland: Banteay Srei – organization to support Southeast Asian women at risk of or engaged in sex work
- Hawaii : Pacific Survivor Center
- Minnesota: Minnesota Indian Women’s Resource Center – Sexual Violence and Trafficking
- New York
- European Commission: Together Against Trafficking in Human Beings
Ideas For How You Might Get Involved:
- Host a film screening
- Write to your local and state politicians to share your concerns
- Learn about the anti-trafficking laws in your state
- Attend a SUSTAIN training or bring one to your city by emailing email@example.com
- Host a journal club
- Hold a clothing drive to benefit survivors of human trafficking
- Buy slave free and support survivor businesses and business that support anti-trafficking efforts
- Learn about trauma bonds
This is an initiative from the PATH Student group — a quarterly series in research and advocacy news summaries created by the PATH residents and medical students. Newsletters will feature brief breakdowns on some of the most recent scholarly publications, policy changes related to human trafficking, and recent and upcoming PATH events.
We want your feedback! Please take one minute of your time to fill out our 5-question survey.
For more information, for membership or leadership opportunities with AMWA PATH, or to schedule a trafficking training near you, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
PATH is run by a small group of volunteers consisting of a pediatric surgeon, an obstetrician gynecologist, an adolescent medicine physician and a psychiatrist, all of whom work full time to care for their patients.
We partner with and mentor a group of busy medical residents, medical students, and college students.
We volunteer our time, because we are passionate about addressing social injustices and offering equitable medical care to victim-survivors of human trafficking.
PATH receives a small grant to help us produce educational events, but it does not cover all of the costs.