AMWA Initiatives

The American Medical Women’s Association advocates to bring under-addressed issues to the forefront of the national agenda.
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Gender Equity Task Force

Mission

The American Medical Women’s Association Gender Equity Task Force (AMWA GETF) strives to accomplish gender equity as a fact of life in society, and to engage in activities, action and collaborations pursuant to this goal, beginning with the healthcare industry of which women physicians are one component.

Goals and Objectives

  1. Educate all healthcare professionals on the importance of establishing gender equity in the healthcare system, starting with women physicians.
  2. Emphasize the importance of gender equity as a work force and health care reform issue.
  3. Further the American Medical Women’s Association’s goal of forming a networking alliance among all female physicians and female physician organizations by creating a database of contacts.
  4. Create a library of useful resources that we can share with others on Gender Equity in the medical profession.
  5. Research and identify other organizations with gender equity initiatives.
  6. Create a networking database with other organizations with gender equity initiatives – Gimbalvo Grant.
  7. Create a speaker’s bureau targeting speakers on gender equity issues.
  8. Create educational materials defining gender equity issues.

Linda Brodsky Memorial Grant

The Dr. Linda Brodsky Memorial Fund honors Dr. Brodsky’s memory by endorsing her passions for gender equity, medical student success, clinical research and the advancement of women physicians. Funds will be used to support the Brodsky Memorial Scholarship and related initiatives promoting gender equity in medicine including but not limited to medical student projects, relevant research and quality of care.

Learn More and Apply

More Info

Position

The Gender Equity Task Force (GETF) of the American Medical Women’s Association (AMWA) holds the position that gender equity must be the standard in every sphere of the medical establishment, as well as American society. All conduct that deviates from this standard, at every level of power and influence, is inherently unethical and unlawful, and cannot be tolerated or excused. Laws give women the right to gender equity, to be free from discrimination on the basis of gender in all areas of their lives. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) gives women, in equality with men, the inalienable right to be free from discrimination on the basis of gender (Article 2). Women pursuing the profession of medicine, in all its forms and at every stage of progress, have these rights throughout their lifespan. Women have the right, as do men, to redress their grievances when their rights as individual human persons are violated. That is de jure. (ref. Laws below) De facto is different. Women who know their right to gender equity, and try to exercise their rights, to correct wrongs done to them and protest violations of their rights, are commonly subject to retaliation. Retaliation ranges from damning with faint praise, untrue and unfair evaluation, diagnoses that discredit, disparagement, exclusion, disadvantage, de facto discrimination, blacklisting, character assassination, firing, loss of livelihood, and loss of profession, through to include, tragically, loss of life. All of the women who suffer such retaliation are directly harmed by this unethical conduct, often indelibly for a lifetime. This is inexcusable and unjustifiable. Retaliatory conduct is repugnant, unethical and unlawful. Therefore, these practices, and the policies that enable them, must stop, and serious negative consequences be created for those who choose to retaliate and do harm. A hostile work environment impedes the optimum development of human potential. AMWA holds the position that there must be zero tolerance of gender stereotyping, gendered harassment, disparities in compensation, disparities in access to career development resources, the creation of a hostile work or learning environment. Ultimately all conduct that deviates from true gender equity harmfully impacts the care given by both women and men physicians. It is the position of AMWA that it is the duty of all persons in the medical establishment of America, in every position and functional capacity, to ensure gender equity is a living reality for all women and men. References: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) Civil Rights Act, Title VII Equal Employment Opportunity Act, An Overview of Women in Academic Medicine, AAMC Analysis Vol. 6, Number 7 Policy on Creating a Gender Neutral Workplace Respectfully Submitted: Joyce Braak, MD; Linda Brodsky, MD; Roberta Gebhard; Ryan Smith, MS3; Vanessa Coleman, MS1. September 2010

#MeTooMedicine

The phrase MeToo was first coined by sexual assault survivor and activist Tarana Burke in 2006. It gained traction in 2017 following sexual abuse allegations against Harvey Weinstein in 2017 as a viral hashtag #MeToo as sexual harassment victims came forward to share their stories. Learn more about the MeToo advocacy within medicine in this #MeTooMedicine repository from AMWA.

Get Involved

Contact us GETF@amwa-doc.org! Join our monthly meetings. If you are a first-time member, you can join AMWA with the discount code: getf and get 15% off your membership.

Fixing the Leaky Pipeline

Statistical data regarding the number of women entering medical school over the past decade have indicated that more than 47% of entering medical students are women (AAMC Women in Medicine Benchmark Statistics). Yet the number of practicing women physicians over the past decade has remained below 35% with most recent estimates around 32.6% of active physicians (AAMC 2014 Physician Data Bank Report). When looking more closely at the numbers of women in leadership positions, the percentages are discouragingly low, especially within the top leadership positions.

This phenomenon of the leaky pipeline for women in medicine is not new. Yet with the increasing influx of women in medicine over the past decade, it is concerning that the problem continues to exist; if anything, the gap in seems to be widening.

We have launched a 2-year initiative, Fixing the Pipeline, to identify

  1. The time points where women are exiting the medical profession
  2. The risk factors for these time points
  3. Possible solutions to address these risk factors
  4. Interventions that would help retain women in the medical profession

This initiative would look at women all stages of their biomedical careers, as students, residents in training, researchers, and practicing physicians. Both academic and non-academic careers would be studied.

Timeline:

  1. Preparatory Phase (2018) – begin literature review, gather statistics, identify national partners and institutions, and set up meetings
  2. Year 1 (2018-2019) – identify the time points and risk factors for women who leave the medical profession
    1. Comprehensive literature review of the past and current research on this issue Review / analyze available data sets from national organizations and institutions Identify data trends
    2. Convene organizations, institutions, and leaders through meetings, focus groups, or summits.
    3. Conduct in-depth institutional and organizational analyses
  1. Year 2 (2019-2020) – identify possible solutions to address these risk factor and interventions that would help retain women in the medical
    1. Establish working groups to focus on particular issues and identify solutions Engage institutions and organizations to discuss these solutions
    2. Develop interventions
  1. Post Year 2 (2020 and beyond) – Encourage widespread implementation of interventions and monitoring of data points at 5 and 10 with the goal of “fixing the leaky ”

Seeking grant funding for:

  • Administrative project support
  • Research and data analysis
  • Meetings and focus groups
  • Program Development
  • Publications and Printing

To get involved, e-mail AssociateDirector@amwa-doc.org.

About the Gender Equity Task Force

In 2010, Dr. Roberta Gebhard founded the Gender Equity Task Force amongst fellow members of the American Medical Women’s Association. She recruited her colleague and friend Dr. Linda Brodsky to co-chair the committee with her.

During 2010, the Gender Equity Task force wrote its mission statement and position paper, in addition to compiling a list of all women physician organizations, and their contacts, in which women physicians have chosen to organize. Together they created a webinar entitled Achieving Gender Equity for Women Physicians for AMWA’s networking alliance. Following the webinar, the gender equity task force was asked to comment as an authority on gender discrepancies in medicine, specifically with relation to pay discrepancies between male and female physicians upon entry into the physician workforce.

At AMWA’s 2011 Annual Meeting, the gender equity task force presented their goals for 2012 to AMWA’s networking alliance and formulated new goals for their 2012 agenda which included plans for a workforce study group and a longitudinal, relational data base to help answer questions about women in medicine. The GETF was a recipient of the AMA Giambalvo funds for a Planning Grant: Creating the Foundation for Study of Women Physicians in the 21st Century Principle Investigator: Linda Brodsky, MD, Co-Chair, American Medical Women’s Association (AMWA), Gender Equity Task Force (GETF) Co-Investigator: Roberta Gebhard, DO, Co-Chair, AMWA.

In 2015, AMWA established the Linda Brodsky Memorial Fund and Linda Brodsky Memorial Lecture to honor the leadership of Dr. Brodsky.  AMWA has continued to maintain WomenMDResources which was founded by Dr. Brodsky to be a resource for women physicians and students.

AMWA GETF – Literature Database

The literature is categorized by the below topics and may appear in multiple categories.

For more information about these articles or to suggest articles to add, please contact us at GETF@amwa-doc.org.

Academic Medicine

Westring, A., et al., An Integrated Framework for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine. Acad Med, 2016. 91(8): p. 1041-4.
Online Open Access

Wiler, J.L., et al., Continuation of Gender Disparities in Pay Among Academic Emergency Medicine Physicians. Acad Emerg Med, 2019. 26(3): p. 286-292.
Online Open Access

Woitowich, N.C., et al., COVID-19 Threatens Progress Toward Gender Equity Within Academic Medicine. Acad Med, 2020.
Online Open Access

Partiali, B., et al., Gender disparity in speakers at a major academic emergency medicine conference. Emerg Med J, 2020.
Online Open Access

John, J.J., et al., Gender Disparity in Academic Gastroenterology: Beginning of the End of the Underrepresentation of Women? Dig Dis Sci, 2020.
Online Open Access

Han, H., et al., Looking into the labyrinth of gender inequality: women physicians in academic medicine. Med Educ, 2018. 52(10): p. 1083-1095.
Online Open Access

Bickel, J., Is Gender Equity Possible in Academic Medicine or Are There More Useful Goals on Which to Focus? J Womens Health (Larchmt), 2020. 29(8): p. 1025-1027.
Online Open Access

Burden, M., et al., Gender disparities in leadership and scholarly productivity of academic hospitalists. J Hosp Med, 2015. 10(8): p. 481-5.
PDF
Online Open Access

Caffrey, L., et al., Gender equity programmes in academic medicine: a realist evaluation approach to Athena SWAN processes. BMJ Open, 2016. 6(9): p. e012090.
PDF
Online Open Access

Isaac, C., B. Lee, and M. Carnes, Interventions that affect gender bias in hiring: a systematic review. Acad Med, 2009. 84(10): p. 1440-6.
Free, Full PDF
Online Open Access

Lee, D., et al., Gender Disparity in Academic Rank and Productivity Among Public Health Physician Faculty in North America. Cureus, 2020. 12(6): p. e8553.
PDF
Online Open Access

Mark, S., et al., Innovative mentoring programs to promote gender equity in academic medicine. Acad Med, 2001. 76(1): p. 39-42.
Online Open Access

Roper, R.L., Does Gender Bias Still Affect Women in Science? Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 2019. 83(3).
PDF
Online Open Access

Westring, A., et al., An Integrated Framework for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine. Acad Med, 2016. 91(8): p. 1041-4.
Full Open Access Online

Woitowich, N.C., et al., COVID-19 Threatens Progress Toward Gender Equity Within Academic Medicine. Acad Med, 2020.
PDF
Online Open Access

Faculty Perceptions of Gender Discrimination and Sexual Harassment in Academic Medicine (Phyllis L. Carr, MD; Arlene S. Ash, PhD; Robert H. Friedman, MD; Laura Szalacha, EDM; Rosalind C. Barnett, PhD; Anita Palepu, MD, MPH; Mark M. Moskowitz, MD)
Online Open Access

Education and Training

Brown, M.E.L., et al., ‘Too male, too pale, too stale’: a qualitative exploration of student experiences of gender bias within medical education. BMJ Open, 2020. 10(8): p. e039092.
Online Open Access
PDF

Gerull, K.M., et al., Assessing gender bias in qualitative evaluations of surgical residents. Am J Surg, 2019. 217(2): p. 306-313.
Online Open Access

Filippou, P., et al., The Presence of Gender Bias in Letters of Recommendations Written for Urology Residency Applicants. Urology, 2019. 134: p. 56-61.
Online Open Access

Chen, S., G.L. Beck Dallaghan, and A. Shaheen, Implicit Gender Bias in Third-Year Surgery Clerkship MSPE Narratives. J Surg Educ, 2020.
Online Open Access

Brown, M.E.L., et al., ‘Too male, too pale, too stale’: a qualitative exploration of student experiences of gender bias within medical education. BMJ Open, 2020. 10(8): p. e039092.
Online Open Access

Barnes, K.L., et al., Gender Bias Experiences of Female Surgical Trainees. J Surg Educ, 2019. 76(6): p. e1-e14.
Online Open Access

Siegelman, J.N., et al., Gender Bias in Simulation-Based Assessments of Emergency Medicine Residents. J Grad Med Educ, 2018. 10(4): p. 411-415.
PDF
Online Open Access

Woodward, Z., et al., Gender disparities in gastroenterology fellowship director positions in the United States. Gastrointest Endosc, 2017. 86(4): p. 595-599.
Online Open Access

Gender Discrimination

Zener, R., et al., Women in Radiology: Exploring the Gender Disparity. J Am Coll Radiol, 2016. 13(3): p. 344-50.e1.
Online Open Access

Zhang, D., et al., Promoting Gender Equity in the #MeToo Era. J Hand Surg Am, 2020.
Online Open Access

Woodward, Z., et al., Gender disparities in gastroenterology fellowship director positions in the United States. Gastrointest Endosc, 2017. 86(4): p. 595-599.
Online Open Access

Thorborg, K., et al., ‘More Walk and Less Talk’: Changing gender bias in sports medicine. Br J Sports Med, 2020.
Online Open Access

Mariotto, S., et al., Gender disparity in editorial boards of journals in neurology. Neurology, 2020. 95(11): p. 489-491.
Online Open Access

O’Neill, S.B., et al., Gender Disparity in Chest Radiology in North America. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol, 2019.
Online Open Access

Parsons Leigh, J., et al., Improving gender equity in critical care medicine: a protocol to establish priorities and strategies for implementation. BMJ Open, 2020. 10(6): p. e037090.
Online Open Access

Shah, A., S. Jalal, and F. Khosa, Influences for gender disparity in dermatology in North America. Int J Dermatol, 2018. 57(2): p. 171-176.
Online Open Access

Shin, H.Y. and H.A. Lee, The current status of gender equity in medicine in Korea: an online survey about perceived gender discrimination. Hum Resour Health, 2020. 18(1): p. 78.
Online Open Access

Sidhu, A., S. Jalal, and F. Khosa, Prevalence of Gender Disparity in Professional Societies of Family Medicine: A Global Perspective. Cureus, 2020. 12(5): p. e7917.
Online Open Access

Silver, J.K., Understanding and addressing gender equity for women in neurology. Neurology, 2019. 93(12): p. 538-549.
Online Open Access

Kesavarapu, K., et al., What’s holding women back? A review of gender inequality in gastroenterology in the USA. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019. 4(12): p. 898-900.
Abstract not available.
Online Open Access

Lee, M.J. and C. Kim, Breaking the Gender Gap: A Two-part Observational Study of the Gender Disparity Among Korean Academic Emergency Physicians. J Prev Med Public Health, 2020. 53(5): p. 362-370.
Online Open Access

Hui, K., et al., Recognizing and addressing implicit gender bias in medicine. Cmaj, 2020. 192(42): p. E1269-e1270.
Article focused on Canada
Online Open Access

Duc, N.M., et al., Gender Disparity in Vietnamese Radiological Societies: a Preliminary Observational Study. Acta Inform Med, 2020. 28(1): p. 71-74.
Online Open Access

Abbuhl, S., et al., Examining faculty awards for gender equity and evolving values. J Gen Intern Med, 2010. 25(1): p. 57-60.
Online Open Access
PDF

Acosta, D.A., et al., Achieving Gender Equity Is Our Responsibility: Leadership Matters. Acad Med, 2020. 95(10): p. 1468-1471.
Online Open Access

Baqi, S., et al., Perceptions of gender equality, work environment, support and social issues for women doctors at a university hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PLoS One, 2017. 12(10): p. e0186896.
Online Open Access
PDF

Bates, C., et al., Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers: A Call to Action. Acad Med, 2016. 91(8): p. 1050-2.
Online Open Access
PDF

Holliday, E.B., et al., Achieving gender equity in the radiation oncology physician workforce. Adv Radiat Oncol, 2018. 3(4): p. 478-483.
Online Open Access

Hilton, E.J., et al., Two Sides of the Same Coin: Addressing Racial and Gender Disparities Among Physicians and the Impact on the Community They Serve. Anesthesiol Clin, 2020. 38(2): p. 369-377.
Online Open Access

Hilton, E.J., et al., The Flaw of Medicine: Addressing Racial and Gender Disparities in Critical Care. Anesthesiol Clin, 2020. 38(2): p. 357-368.
Online Open Access

Henderson, L.R., et al., Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in a UK National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre: A two-factor model. PLoS One, 2020. 15(10): p. e0239589.
Online Open Access

Heisler, C.A., et al., Has a critical mass of women resulted in gender equity in gynecologic surgery? Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2020. 223(5): p. 665-673.
Online Open Access

Graves, J.S. and A. Brashear, Gender bias in American Academy of Neurology recognition awards? Neurology, 2018. 91(7): p. 291-292.
Online Open Access

Chadwick, A.J. and R. Baruah, Gender disparity and implicit gender bias amongst doctors in intensive care medicine: A ‘disease’ we need to recognise and treat. J Intensive Care Soc, 2020. 21(1): p. 12-17.
PDF
Online Open Access

Choo, E.K. and D.R. Bangsberg, Equity in Starting Salaries: A Tangible Effort to Achieve Gender Equity in Medicine. Acad Med, 2019. 94(1): p. 10.
Online Open Access

Davuluri, M., et al., Gender Bias in Medicine: Does It Exist at AUA Plenary Sessions? Urology, 2020.
PDF
Online Open Access

Mamtani, M., et al., Quantifying gender disparity in physician authorship among commentary articles in three high-impact medical journals: an observational study. BMJ Open, 2020. 10(2): p. e034056.
PDF
Online Open Access

Narayana, S., et al., Minding the Gap: Organizational Strategies to Promote Gender Equity in Academic Medicine During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Gen Intern Med, 2020: p. 1-4.
PDF
Online Open Access

Rabinowitz, L.G., Recognizing Blind Spots – A Remedy for Gender Bias in Medicine? N Engl J Med, 2018. 378(24): p. 2253-2255.
PDF
Online Open Access

Shannon, G., et al., Gender equality in science, medicine, and global health: where are we at and why does it matter? Lancet, 2019. 393(10171): p. 560-569.
PDF
Online Open Access

Tricco, A.C., et al., Strategies to Prevent or Reduce Gender Bias in Peer Review of Research Grants: A Rapid Scoping Review. PLoS One, 2017. 12(1): p. e0169718.
PDF
Online Open Access

Faculty Perceptions of Gender Discrimination and Sexual Harassment in Academic Medicine (Phyllis L. Carr, MD; Arlene S. Ash, PhD; Robert H. Friedman, MD; Laura Szalacha, EDM; Rosalind C. Barnett, PhD; Anita Palepu, MD, MPH; Mark M. Moskowitz, MD)
Online Open Access

Lost Taussigs — The Consequences of Gender Discrimination in Medicine (Lisa S. Rotenstein, M.D., M.B.A., and Anupam B. Jena, M.D., Ph.D.)
Online Open Access

Healthcare and Workplace Environment

Agrawal, P., et al., Gender Disparities in Academic Emergency Medicine: Strategies for the Recruitment, Retention, and Promotion of Women. AEM Educ Train, 2020. 4(Suppl 1): p. S67-s74.
Online Open Access
PDF

Ahmadi, M., et al., Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Neuroradiology. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2018. 39(1): p. 18-23.
Online Open Access
PDF

Burgess, S., et al., Gender equity within medical specialties of Australia and New Zealand: cardiology’s outlier status. Intern Med J, 2020. 50(4): p. 412-419.
Online Open Access

Deipolyi, A.R., et al., Gender Disparity in Industry Relationships With Academic Interventional Radiology Physicians. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 2020. 215(2): p. 494-501.
Online Open Access

Wiler, J.L., et al., Continuation of Gender Disparities in Pay Among Academic Emergency Medicine Physicians. Acad Emerg Med, 2019. 26(3): p. 286-292.
PDF
Online Open Access

Leadership

Qamar, S.R., et al., Gender Disparity Among Leaders of Canadian Academic Radiology Departments. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 2020. 214(1): p. 3-9.
Online Open Access

Selter, J.H., E.E. Spurlin, and P.C. Brady, Gender inequality in leadership and academic rank in academic reproductive endocrinology programs. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2020. 37(8): p. 1959-1962.
Online Open Access

Magliano, D.J., et al., Addressing Gender Equity in Senior Leadership Roles in Translational Science. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci, 2020. 3(4): p. 773-779.
Online Open Access

Abdellatif, W., et al., Leadership Gender Disparity Within Research-Intensive Medical Schools: A Transcontinental Thematic Analysis. J Contin Educ Health Prof, 2019. 39(4): p. 243-250.
Online Open Access

Butkus, R., et al., Achieving Gender Equity in Physician Compensation and Career Advancement: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med, 2018. 168(10): p. 721-723.
Online Open Access

Acosta, D.A., et al., Achieving Gender Equity Is Our Responsibility: Leadership Matters. Acad Med, 2020. 95(10): p. 1468-1471.
Online Open Access

Agrawal, P., et al., Gender Disparities in Academic Emergency Medicine: Strategies for the Recruitment, Retention, and Promotion of Women. AEM Educ Train, 2020. 4(Suppl 1): p. S67-s74.
Online Open Access

Bernardi, K., et al., Perceptions on gender disparity in surgery and surgical leadership: A multicenter mixed methods study. Surgery, 2020. 167(4): p. 743-750.
Online Open Access

Carr, P.L., et al., Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Women in Academic Medicine: How Institutions Are Addressing Gender Disparities. Womens Health Issues, 2017. 27(3): p. 374-381.
Online Open Access

Gharzai, L.A. and R. Jagsi, Ongoing Gender Inequity in Leadership Positions of Academic Oncology Programs: The Broken Pipeline. JAMA Netw Open, 2020. 3(3): p. e200691.
Online Open Access

Chen, S.T., et al., Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Family Medicine in North American Medical Schools. Cureus, 2020. 12(5): p. e8368.
PDF
Online Open Access

Silver, J.K., et al., Analysis of Gender Equity in Leadership of Physician-Focused Medical Specialty Societies, 2008-2017. JAMA Intern Med, 2019. 179(3): p. 433-435. This cross-sectional study examines gender equity in the presidential leadership of medical specialty societies over a 10-year period.
Online Open Access

Carnes, M., et al., The effect of an intervention to break the gender bias habit for faculty at one institution: a cluster randomized, controlled trial. Acad Med, 2015. 90(2): p. 221-30.
PDF
Online Open Access

Carr, P.L., et al., Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Women in Academic Medicine: How Institutions Are Addressing Gender Disparities. Womens Health Issues, 2017. 27(3): p. 374-381.
PDF
Online Open Access

Miscellaneous

Lawlor C, Kawai K, Tracy L, Sobin L, Kenna M. Women in Otolaryngology: Experiences of Being Female in the Specialty. Laryngoscope. 2021 Feb;131(2):E380-E387. doi: 10.1002/lary.28917. Epub 2020 Jul 23. PMID: 32702136.
Online Open Access

Tricco, A.C., et al., Strategies to Prevent or Reduce Gender Bias in Peer Review of Research Grants: A Rapid Scoping Review. PLoS One, 2017. 12(1): p. e0169718.
Online Open Access

Adami, G., et al., Gender disparity in authorship of guidelines and recommendations in rheumatology. Ann Rheum Dis, 2020. 79(8): p. 1122-1123.
***Topic: Lack of women first authors in medical research
Online Open Access

Bernardi, K., et al., Gender Disparity in Authorship of Peer-Reviewed Medical Publications. Am J Med Sci, 2020. 360(5): p. 511-516.
***Topic: gender disparity in peer-reviewed literature authorship
Online Open Access

Zhang, D., et al., Promoting Gender Equity in the #MeToo Era. J Hand Surg Am, 2020.
Online Open Access

All the below are regarding sexual assault:

Sexual Harassment in Medicine- #MeToo (Reshma Jagsi, M.D., D.Phil., 2018)
Online Open Access

Sexual Harassment and Discrimination Experiences of Academic Medical Faculty (Jagsi R, Griffith K, Jones R, Perumalswami C, Ubel P, Stewart A., 2016)
Online Open Access

Sexual Harassment in Medical Training (Miriam Komaromy, Andrew B. Bindman, Richard J. Haber, and Merle A. Sande, 1993)
Online Open Access

Association of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault With Midlife Women’s Mental and Physical Health (Rebecca C. Thurston, PhD; Yuefang Chang, PhD; Karen A. Matthews, PhD; et al)
Online Open Access

Gender equality in science, medicine, and global health: where are we at and why does it matter? (Lancet, medical journal)
Online Open Access

Identifying medicine’s gender equity gaps is just the start, (American Medical Association)
Online Open Access

#MeToo in Health Care: A Multidimensional Problem With Widespread Effects and Incomplete Answers (Mayo)
Online Open Access

Surgical Practice

Yue, T. and F. Khosa, Academic Gender Disparity in Orthopedic Surgery in Canadian Universities. Cureus, 2020. 12(3): p. e7205.
Online Open Access

Smith, B.T., et al., Change Is Happening: An Evaluation of Gender Disparities in Academic Plastic Surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg, 2019. 144(4): p. 1001-1009.
Online Open Access

Dossani, R.H., et al., Gender disparities in academic rank achievement in neurosurgery: a critical assessment. J Neurosurg, 2019: p. 1-6.
Online Open Access

Barnes, K.L., et al., Gender Bias Experiences of Female Surgical Trainees. J Surg Educ, 2019. 76(6): p. e1-e14.
Online Open Access
PDF

Bellini, M.I., et al., Changing the norm towards gender equity in surgery: the women in surgery working group of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland’s perspective. J R Soc Med, 2019. 112(8): p. 325-329.
Online Open Access
PDF

Bernardi, K., et al., Perceptions on gender disparity in surgery and surgical leadership: A multicenter mixed methods study. Surgery, 2020. 167(4): p. 743-750.
Online Open Access
PDF

Brown, M.A., et al., Despite Growing Number of Women Surgeons, Authorship Gender Disparity in Orthopaedic Literature Persists Over 30 Years. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2020. 478(7): p. 1542-1552.
Online Open Access

Chen, S., G.L. Beck Dallaghan, and A. Shaheen, Implicit Gender Bias in Third-Year Surgery Clerkship MSPE Narratives. J Surg Educ, 2020.
PDF
Online Open Access

Chen, K., et al., Is There Gender Inequality in Plastic Surgery? Evaluation of Society Leadership and Composition of Editorial Boards. Plast Reconstr Surg, 2020. 145(2): p. 433e-437e.
Online Open Access

Davids, J.S., et al., Female Representation and Implicit Gender Bias at the 2017 American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons’ Annual Scientific and Tripartite Meeting. Dis Colon Rectum, 2019. 62(3): p. 357-362.
PDF
Online Open Access

Lyons, N.B., et al., Gender Disparity in Surgery: An Evaluation of Surgical Societies. Surg Infect (Larchmt), 2019. 20(5): p. 406-410.
Online Open Access

Marrone, A.F., et al., Does academic authorship reflect gender bias in pediatric surgery? An analysis of the Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 2007-2017. J Pediatr Surg, 2020. 55(10): p. 2071-2074.
PDF
Online Open Access

Moak, T.N., et al., The Leaky Pipeline of Women in Plastic Surgery: Embracing Diversity to Close the Gender Disparity Gap. Aesthet Surg J, 2020. 40(11): p. 1241-1248.
Online Open Access

Phillips, N.A., S.C. Tannan, and L.K. Kalliainen, Understanding and Overcoming Implicit Gender Bias in Plastic Surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg, 2016. 138(5): p. 1111-1116.
Online Open Access

Ray, G.S., et al., Gender Disparities in Financial Relationships Between Industry and Orthopaedic Surgeons. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2020. 102(4): p. e12.
Online Open Access

Smith, B.T., et al., Change Is Happening: An Evaluation of Gender Disparities in Academic Plastic Surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg, 2019. 144(4): p. 1001-1009.
Online Open Access

Work Life Integration

Tomer, G., et al., Perceptions of gender equality in work-life balance, salary, promotion, and harassment: results of the NASPGHAN task force survey. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2015. 60(4): p. 481-5.
Online Open Access

Eyigör, H., et al., Women in otolaryngology in Turkey: Insight of gender equality, career development and work-life balance. Am J Otolaryngol, 2020. 41(1): p. 102305.
Online Open Access

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