<div> </div>

Journal Articles for Teaching

WHERE TO SEARCH FOR SEX AND GENDER JOURNAL ARTICLES — PubMed search tool and the international Gender Med Database.
HEALTH PROFESSIONS EDUCATION ABOUT SEX AND GENDER — Articles and reports identifying the need for SGBH concepts in healthcare education and tips for curricular integration. 
BIAS IN RESEARCH ABOUT SEX AND GENDER HEALTH — Documented sex based bias in research and the need to include both sexes in research, education, and publications.
PIVOTAL ARTICLES RE: SEX AND GENDER DIFFERENCES — Groundbreaking articles in various specialty areas which changed our thinking about sex bias in research, education, and standards of care for various health conditions.


Where to Search for Sex and Gender Journal Articles

Tools that can be used to locate sex and gender-based articles in Pub Med. Includes a link to the Gender Med Database compiled by international authors.

PubMed Search Tool for Sex and Gender Content

The Sex and Gender Specific Health website’s resources page contains a PubMed search tool to find articles showing sex and gender differences for health conditions. Basic and advanced PubMed tools are available, as well as instructions for use. Click on Literature Search & Database Resources.

GenderMed Database

A systematic collection of scientific publications in the medical field analyzing sex and gender differences. The Database includes articles investigating both strictly biological differences between the sexes (sex-specific analysis) and manuscripts detailing the role of psychosocial, economical and cultural aspects as causes for differences between women and men (gender-specific analysis). The pilot project Gender Medicine, funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) from 2008-2010, built the foundation for the current database.

Health Professions Education About Sex and Gender

Articles and reports identifying the need for SGBH concepts in healthcare education and tips for curricular integration.

Needs Assessment and the Case for Integrating Sex and Gender Content

Advancing Sex and Gender Competency in Medicine

June 1, 2013
Advancing Sex and Gender Competency in Medicine. Alyson J McGregor, Kimberly Templeton, Mary Rojek Kleinman, Marjorie R Jenkins. This article presents a case for the inclusion of sex and gender focused content into medical curricula and describes a means for students, faculty, and practitioners to access a centralized, interactive repository for these resources.

Web Based Medical Education

March 2011
Perspectives on gender-specific medicine, course and learning style preferences in medical education A study among students at the Medical University of Vienna Summary. In the study for the thesis Web Based Training with Moodle: Gender-differences in Action of Drugs, a survey among students of the Medical University of Vienna (MUV) concerning the implementation of gender-specific medicine […]

Gender Medicine: A Task For The Third Millennium

March 21, 2013
Gender medicine: a task for the third millennium AUTHORS: Giovannella Baggio, Alberto Corsini, Annarosa Floreani, Sandro Giannini, Vittorina Zagonel, Abstract Gender-specific medicine is the study of how diseases differ between men and women in terms of prevention, clinical signs, therapeutic approach, prognosis, psychological and social impact. It is a neglected dimension of medicine. In […]

Future of Women’s Health

March 2002
Charting a course for the future of women’s health in the United States: concepts, findings and recommendations Donna M. Strobino*, Holly Grason, Cynthia Minkovitz Under the auspices of the John’s Hopkins University Women’s and Children’s Health Policy Center, and Maternal and Child Health Bureau, the participants confirmed the need to focus broadly on women’s health […]

How To: Cirricular Design and Integration Models

Embedding Concepts of Sex and Gender Health Differences into Medical Curricula

November 3, 2013
Sex, a biological variable, and gender, a cultural variable, define the individual and affect all aspects of disease prevention, development, diagnosis, progression, and treatment. This report summarized proceedings, recommendations, and action items from a 2012 workshop of experts from medical schools, public health and the U.S. government.

Improving Medical Education Using a Sex- and Gender-Based Medicine Lens

October 1, 2016
An introduction to using a sex and gender based lens in medicine. Includes examples that led to successful integration of SGBM in U.S. medical schools, as well as resources for medical educators and researchers, so that the health of both women and men can be positively impacted.

Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: A Roadmap for Curricular Innovation

October 14, 2016
A discussion of the 2015 Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: A Roadmap for Curricular Innovation. This was a collaborative initiative of the American Medical Women’s Association, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women’s Health, Mayo Clinic, and the Society for Women’s Health Research. (www.sgbmeducationsummit.com).

Workshop Summaries from the 2015 Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: Utilization of sex and gender based medical education resources and creating student competencies

October 14, 2016
Despite overwhelming evidence that sex and gender are critical factors in the delivery and practice of medicine, there is no unified sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) undergraduate medical education curriculum. Two Workshops within the 2015 Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a Roadmap to Curricular Innovation sought to lay the framework for such a curriculum.

Gender Based Medical Education at Innsbruck

October 8, 2012
How Do We Get Gender Medicine Into Medical Education? Margarethe Hochleitner, Ulrike Nachtschatt & Heidi Siller. The authors look at the incorporation of gender medicine into the curriculum of Innsbruck Medical University to discuss the factors and the strategy that helped to establish it.

Gender Based Medical Education — Student Attitudes

March 7, 2011
Perspectives on gender-specific medicine, course and learning style preferences in medical education: a study among students at the Medical University of Vienna.  Jürgen Harreiter, Hubert Wiener, Herbert Plass, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer. Students considered gender-specific medicine as important but sufficiently covered in their medical education at the MUV.

Gender Competency in Medicine

August 5, 2009
Gender Competencies in the Medical Curriculum: Addressing Gender Bias in Medicine Abstract Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medicine are interrelated challenges facing health care providers and educators. Women and girls are disadvantaged in accessing health care because of their low social status and unequal treatment in medical care. Gender bias has long […]

Women’s Health Center of Excellence

July 7, 2004
Development of a comprehensive women’s health program in an academic medical center: experiences of the Indiana University National Center of Excellence in Women’s Health Abstract BACKGROUND:The Indiana University School of Medicine National Center of Excellence (IU CoE) in Women’s Health was funded by the Office on Women’s Health, Department of Health and Human Services, in […]

The Philosophy and Practicality of the Biopsychosocial Model

November 1, 2004
The Biopsychosocial Model 25 Years Later: Principles, Practice, and Scientific Inquiry. Borrell-Carrió, F., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M. The biopsychosocial model is both a philosophy of clinical care and a practical clinical guide. Philosophically, it is a way of understanding how suffering, disease, and illness are affected by multiple levels of organization, from the societal to the molecular. At the practical level, it is a way of understanding the patient’s subjective experience as an essential contributor to accurate diagnosis, health outcomes, and humane care. The authors defend the biopsychosocial model as a necessary contribution to the scientific clinical method, while suggesting 3 clarifications. They propose a biopsychosocial-oriented clinical practice with 7 pillars.

Sex Differences in Scientific Research

BOOK REVIEW of Sex Differences: Summarizing More Than a Century of Scientific
Research. By Lee Ellis, Scott Hershberger, Evelyn Field, Scott Wersinger, Sergio Pellis, David Geary,
Craig Palmer, Katherine Hoyenga, Amir Hetsroni, and Kazmer Karadi. P. The book includes a massive compendium of citations for reported sex differences. Overall, the book will be a valuable reference resource for
researchers in a variety of disciplines.

A New Model for Women’s Health

February 9, 2013
Implementing a new model of integrated women’s health in academic health centers: lessons learned from the National Centers of Excellence in Women’s Health. Gwinner, V. M., Strauss Iii, J. F., Milliken, N., & Donoghue, G. D. The National Centers of Excellence in Women’s Health Program (CoE) represents a new model for women’s health in academic health centers that unites women’s health research, teaching, clinical care, public education and outreach, and career advancement for women in the health sciences. Lessons learned from the first 3 years: transformation requires institutional commitment, dedicated players, and an ability to build on existing resources and bring added value to the institution. Challenges and strategies are also discussed.

Teaching Sex Based Differences in Physiology

January 1, 2007
Sex-based differences in physiology: what should we teach in the medical curriculum? Blair, M. L. This overview highlights the key concepts relevant to the topic of sex-based differences in physiology: why these differences are important, their potential causes, and examples of prominent differences between males and females in normal physiological function for selected organ systems.

Medical Students’ Assessment of Education and Training in Women’s Health and in Sex and Gender Differences

September 18, 2010
Medical students’ assessment of education and training in women’s health and in sex and gender differences. Henrich, J. B., Viscoli, C. M., & Abraham, G. D. Although medical students reported that they were moderately prepared to care for women, their low rating of curriculum coverage of women’s health and sex/gender-specific topics suggests important gaps in teaching. Lower ratings by female students and by those at AMWA schools may reflect differences in students’ knowledge, educational expectations, or perceptions about the importance of topics.

Prescription for Change: Teaching New Physicians that Women Are Not Men

May/June 2011
Teaching new physicians that women are not men …. how you can help. Massion, CT, Fugh-Berman, A. The terms “gender-specific medicine and “sex-specific medicine” refer to the biological and physiological differences between the sexes, and the fact that these differences affect individuals’ experiences of health and disease. Despite widespread recognition that women are not men, coverage of women’s health issues is lacking in medical education. In fact, most educators seem to believe that reproductive health courses are sufficient to fully teach about women’s health.

Need for Women’s Health Training in Gastroenterology

June 30, 2010
Meeting the need for women’s health training in gastroenterology: creation of a women’s digestive disorders program at Brown University Saha, S., & Esposti, S. D. A training experience in GI women’s health can be created using local resources and expertise. Gastroenterologists with this training feel prepared to evaluate and manage the spectrum of women’s health issues encountered in practice.

Strategies for Building a Multidisciplinary Academic Program in Women’s Health

August 28, 2012
Strategies for building a multidisciplinary academic program in women’s health. Brown, A. J. Women’s Health This article describes a strategy used at Duke University Medical Center to build awareness of women’s health through a highly visible and successful Women’s Health Seminar Series. The series serves as a focal point for broader efforts to build a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, academic program in women’s health with initiatives in clinical care, research, faculty development, provider education, and community outreach.

Eyes Wide Shut: Erasing Women’s Experiences from the Clinic to the Courtroom

August 20, 2012
Eyes Wide Shut: Erasing Women’s Experiences from the Clinic to the Courtroom. Waldman, E., & Herald, M. A survey of medical student attitudes about the need to secure consent before performing pelvic exams on anesthetized women revealed a paradoxical finding: students who had completed an obstetric/gynecology (Ob-Gyn) rotation were more cavalier about gaining consent than those who had not yet begun their Ob-Gyn training. The authors explore how cognitive biases and distortions taint the medical and legal understanding of women, and how these constricted understandings form the foundation of legal doctrines unresponsive to women’s experiences. An outline of the article is HERE.

Male Education Leader’s Views about Gender in Medicine

May 12, 2011
‘Important… but of low status’: male education leaders’ views on gender in medicine Risberg, G., Johansson, E. E., & Hamberg, K. When surveyed, male faculty leaders embrace the importance of gender‐related issues, but do not necessarily recognize or defend their impact on an area of significant knowledge and competence in medicine.

Reforming Medical Education via Competencies

June 27, 2013
Women’s health during health care transformation. Clancy, C. M., & Sharp, B. A. C. Women’s health makes the case for and provides the tools and impetus for essential curriculum transformation necessary to move us into the Information Age, with simulation- based learning and competency assessment. The Affordable Care Act promises health care reform that will significantly improve women’s health, and by necessity will lead to enhancements in medical/health education, clinical care, research, leading to patient-centered delivery of medicine.

Integration of Sex and Gender in Medical Education

June 7, 2012
Gender and sex: issues in medical education Lagro-Janssen, T. (2010) Examples of knowledge, attitudes and skills relating to sex and gender can be implemented in both optional and compulsory medical courses. Factors that can facilitate or impede the implementation of gender specific medical education are described and the author explores what is needed to educate […]

Evaluating sex and gender competencies in the medical curriculum: a case study

June 2012
Evaluating sex and gender competencies in the medical curriculum: a case study. Miller, V. M., Flynn, P. M., & Lindor, K. D. This study aimed to measure the sex and gender medical knowledge of medical students enrolled in a program without an explicit directive to integrate sex and gender differences across a block system of core subjects. Information regarding sex and gender aspects of medicine was not consistently included in this curriculum without an explicit directive.

The Case for Sex- and Gender-Specific Medicine

August 2014
The Case for Sex- and Gender-Specific Medicine C. Noel Bairey Merz, MD; Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, MD. There are numerous differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) between men and women. Women have a higher prevalence of coronary microvascular dysfunction, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, Tako-Tsubo syndrome (also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy), and post–myocardial infarction depression than men. Women also have a greater sensitivity to QT-prolonging medications and higher heart failure mortality with digoxin than men. A mounting literature further documents important sex differences in pharmacology, including response to β-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

Bias in Research About Sex and Gender Health

Documented sex based bias in research and the need to include both sexes in research, education, and publications.

Sex of the Principal Investigator Influences NIH Critique of R01 Applications

June 25, 2016
Analysis of National Institutes of Health R01 application critiques, impact, and criteria scores: does the sex of the principal investigator make a difference? Kaatz, A., Lee, Y. G., Potvien, A., Magua, W., Filut, A., Bhattacharya, A., … & Carnes, M. Subtle gender bias may continue to operate in the post-2009 NIH review format in ways that could lead reviewers to implicitly hold male and female applicants to different standards of evaluation, particularly for R01 renewals.

Gender Differences in Contributions to Science Publications

August 2016
Is science built on the shoulders of women? A study of gender differences in contributorship. Macaluso, B., Larivière, V., Sugimoto, T., & Sugimoto, C. R. Women remain underrepresented in the production of scientific literature, and relatively little is known regarding their labor roles. Women were significantly more likely to be associated with performing experiments, and men were more likely to be associated with all other authorship roles. These disparities have implications for the production of scholarly knowledge, the evaluation of scholars, and the ethical conduct of science.

Gender Differences in Medical Faculty Productivity

August 2016
Longitudinal analysis of gender differences in academic productivity among medical faculty across 24 medical schools in the United States. Raj, A., Carr, P. L., Kaplan, S. E., Terrin, N., Breeze, J. L., & Freund, K. M. Examines gender differences in academic productivity, as indicated by publications and federal grant funding acquisition, among a longitudinal cohort of medical faculty from 24 U.S. medical schools, 1995 to 2012-2013.

Trailblazing the Way on Sex-Specific Reporting in Science

Sex-Specific Reporting of scientific research: A workshop summary. Wizemann TM. Institute of Medicine (US) Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. The workshop explored the need for sex-specific reporting of scientific results; potential barriers and unintended consequences of sex-specific reporting of scientific results; experiences of journals that have implemented sex-specific requirements, including the challenges and benefits of such editorial policies; and steps to facilitate the reporting of sex-specific results.

Surgical Journals Still Exclude Women in Basic Science Research

September 2014
Sex bias exists in basic science and translational surgical research. Yoon, D. Y., Mansukhani, N. A., Stubbs, V. C., Helenowski, I. B., Woodruff, T. K., & Kibbe, M. R. Manuscripts from Annals of SurgeryAmerican Journal of SurgeryJAMA SurgeryJournal of Surgical Research, and Surgery from 2011 to 2012 were reviewed. Sex bias, be it overt, inadvertent, situational, financial, or ignorant, exists in surgical biomedical research.

NIH Ending Sex Bias in Medical Research

May 17, 2014
Policy: NIH to balance sex in cell and animal studies. Clayton, J. A., & Collins, F. S. (2014). NIH leaders unveil policies to ensure that preclinical research funded by the US National Institutes of Health considers sex differences between males and females. In requiring sex and gender inclusion plans in preclinical research, the NIH will ensure that the health of the United States is being served by supporting science that meets the highest standards of rigor.

Poverty and Gender Bias Lead to Biases in Research

July 1, 2004
The relationship between poverty, gender, and health disparities is multidimensional. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research.

Exclusion of women from clinical research: myth or reality?

May 2008
Rogers WA, Ballantyne AJ; Australian Gender Equity in Health Research Group. Department of Medical Education, School of Medicine, Flinders University, Australia. wendy.rogers@flinders.edu.au Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of male and female research participants and rates of sex-based analysis and sex-specific reporting in published Australian clinical research. RESULTS: Few publications analyzed results by sex. Some studies excluded women or men for apparently arbitrary reasons.

Poverty and Gender in Health Research

July 1, 2004

Paying attention to gender and poverty in health research:content and process issues. Piroska Östlin, Gita Sen, & Asha George. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research. We use two such factors poverty and gender to illustrate how this occurs. There is a systematic imbalance in medical journals: research into diseases that predominate in the poorest regions of the world is less likely to be published. In addition, the slow recognition of women’s health problems, misdirected and partial approaches to understanding women’s and men’s health, and the dearth of information on how gender interacts with other social determinants continue to limit the content of health research. In the research community these imbalances in content are linked to biases against researchers from poorer regions and women.

Sex of Cells in Cardiovascular Studies Show Bias

November 7, 2011
Reporting of sex as a variable in cardiovascular studies using cultured cells. Taylor, K. E., Vallejo-Giraldo, C., Schaible, N. S., Zakeri, R., & Miller, V. M. Studies often neglect to indicate the sex of cells used. When they do report the sex, it frequently has a male bias.

Sex-Gender Research Sensitivity and Healthcare Disparities

February 19, 2010
Sex-gender research sensitivity and healthcare disparities. Gochfeld, M. Despite advances, sex and gender are not well treated in the biomedical literature. Many studies in which males and females are represented do not address the similarities or differences between sexes, sometimes adjusting for (thereby obscuring) sex differences and sometimes ignoring sex altogether. Women continue to be underrepresented in randomized drug trials, excluded from some by potential reproductive effects, and perhaps frightened from others by IRB-required warnings. Although recognized, sex disparities in treatment, for example, for acute cardiac syndrome, persist.

Gender and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

August 2, 2007
Gender and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: why it matters. Han, M. K., Postma, D., Mannino, D. M., Giardino, N. D., Buist, S., Curtis, J. L., & Martinez, F. J. Gender and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: why it matters The authors present current knowledge regarding how gender influences the epidemiology, diagnosis, and presentation of COPD in addition to physiologic and psychologic impairments and attempt to offer insight into why these differences might exist and how this may influence therapeutic management. Women may actually be at greater risk of smoking-induced lung function impairment, more severe dyspnea, and poorer health status for the same level of tobacco exposure. Nonsmokers with COPD are also more likely to be female. Men and women may be phenotypically different in their response to tobacco smoke, with men being more prone to an emphysematous phenotype and women an airway predominant phenotype.

Animals Have a Sex, So Should Titles and Methods Sections In Endocrinology Journal

June 1, 2012
Animals have a sex, and so should titles and methods sections of articles in Endocrinology. Blaustein, JD. Beginning with papers submitted as of July 1, 2012, the methods sections of manuscripts submitted to Endocrinology must indicate the sex of animals used, or in the case of primary cells or cultures, the sex of animal from which they were derived. Although not required, authors are also encouraged to identify the sex of cell lines used in cell cultures. If the experiment is of a mixed-sex design, the numbers of males and females should be indicated in the methods. If only one sex of animal was used in an experiment, the title should indicate the sex of animal used.

Sex Bias in Neuroscience and Biomedical Research

January 2011
Sex bias in neuroscience and biomedical research Beery, A. K., & Zucker, I. Female mammals have long been neglected in biomedical research. The NIH mandated enrollment of women in human clinical trials in 1993, but no similar initiatives exist to foster research on female animals. We reviewed sex bias in research on mammals in 10 biological fields for 2009 and their historical precedents. Male bias was evident in 8 disciplines and most prominent in neuroscience, with single-sex studies of male animals outnumbering those of females 5.5 to 1. In the past half-century, male bias in non-human studies has increased while declining in human studies. Studies of both sexes frequently fail to analyze results by sex. The belief that non-human female mammals are intrinsically more variable than males and too troublesome for routine inclusion in research protocols is without foundation.

Calling for Sex-Specific Reporting of Trial Results

May 2008
Dispelling the myths: calling for sex-specific reporting of trial results. Hayes, S. N., & Redberg, R. F. The history and myths associated with the exclusion of women from clinical trials are summarized. It is time to recognize that women are complex biological creatures just as are men. All clinical studies should strive to include equal numbers of female and male participants or to at least reflect the prevalence of the condition of interest by sex. Data must also be analyzed and reported by sex.

Sex, Gender, and Health Biotechnology: Points to Consider

July 21, 2009
Sex, gender, and health biotechnology: points to consider. Singh, J. A., Bandewar, S., & Singer, P. A. We propose sex and gender considerations at five critical stages of health biotechnology research and development: priority setting; technology design; clinical trials; commercialization, and health services delivery. Applying a systematic sex and gender framework to five key process stages of health biotechnology research and development could be a first step towards unlocking the opportunities of this promising science for women in the developing world.

Pivotal Articles Regarding Sex and Gender Differences

Groundbreaking articles in various specialty areas which changed our thinking about sex bias in research, education, and standards of care for various health conditions.

Gender Differences in Prevention of Stroke

May 2011
Aspirin is used to prevent ischemic stroke and other types of cardiovascular disease. Seven trials of aspirin focusing on the effectiveness of primary prevention of stroke and other cardiovascular events have been performed, but three of […]

Sex Differences in Zolpidem Clearance and Alcohol Dehydrogenase

September 25, 2016
Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases Contribue to Sex-Related Differences in Clearance of Zolpidem in Rats AUTHORS: Peer, C.J., Stronge, J.D., et al Objectives: The recommended zolpidem starting dose was lowered in females (5 mg vs. 10 mg) since side effects were more frequent and severe than those of males; the mechanism underlying sex differences in pharmacokinetics […]

Potentially Lethal Ventricular Arrhythmias and Heart Failure in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: What Are the Differences Between Men and Women?

October 2016
Potentially Lethal Ventricular Arrhythmias and Heart Failure in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy What Are the Differences Between Men and Women? Kimura, Y., Noda, T., Otsuka, Y., Wada, M., Nakajima, I., Ishibashi, K., … & Noguchi, T. ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study was to assess sex-related differences in sporadic cases of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Background Previous studies have suggested male predominance in ARVC. However, the impact of […]

Long-Term Opioid Therapy Relieves Chronic Pain in Only 20% of Women

October 18, 2015
Sex and Age Differences in Global Pain Status Among Patients Using Opioids Long Term for Chronic Noncancer Pain AUTHORS: LeResche Linda, Saunders Kathleen, Dublin Sascha, Thielke Stephen, Merrill Joseph O., Shortreed Susan M., Campbell Cynthia, and Von Korff Michael R.. Journal of Women’s Health. August 2015, 24(8): 629-635. doi:10.1089/jwh.2015.5222. ABSTRACT Background: The use of chronic opioid […]

Sex Differences in Influenza Vaccine

January 3, 2014
Systems analysis of sex differences reveals an immunosuppressive role for testosterone in the response to influenza vaccination Key Findings: Marked sex differences in immune response to infections and vaccination exist. The reason may be a cluster of genes involved in lipid metabolism that are modulated by testosterone and that correlate with the higher antibody-neutralizing response […]

The Epigenetics of Sex Differences in the Brain

October 14, 2009
The epigenetics of sex differences in the brain. McCarthy, M. M., Auger, A. P., Bale, T. L., De Vries, G. J., Dunn, G. A., Forger, N. G., … & Wilson, M. E. Epigenetic changes in the nervous system are emerging as a critical component of enduring effects induced by early life experience, hormonal exposure, trauma and injury, or learning and memory. Many steroid-induced epigenetic changes are opportunistic and restricted to a single lifespan, but new evidence suggests endocrine-disrupting compounds can exert multigenerational effects. Similarly, maternal diet also induces transgenerational effects, but the impact is sex specific. The study of epigenetics of sex differences is in its earliest stages.

Brain Sex Depends on Sex Differences in Other Body Parts

August 15, 2015
Sex differences in the brain: a whole body perspective Authors: Geert J. de Vries* and Nancy G. Forger Abstract Most writing on sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain (including our own) considers just two organs: the gonads and the brain. This perspective, which leaves out all other body parts, misleads us in several ways. First, […]

Nerve Block for Prevention of Hot Flashes

August 2014
Effects of stellate ganglion block on vasomotor symptoms: findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial in postmenopausal women Walega, David R. MD1; Rubin, Leah H. PhD2; Banuvar, Suzanne MPA3; Shulman, Lee P. MD3; Maki, Pauline M. PhD2,4 Abstract Objective Uncontrolled intervention studies, including studies involving breast cancer survivors, have demonstrated improvements in vasomotor symptoms […]

MI Chest Pain Differs by Sex

February 22/29, 2012
Association of Age and Sex With Myocardial Infarction Symptom Presentation and In-Hospital Mortality Key Findings: Proportion of MI patients who presented without chest pain was significantly higher for women than men (42.0% vs 30.7%) There was a significant interaction between age and sex with chest pain at presentation, with a larger sex difference in younger […]

Gendered Response to Depression

October 2013
The Experience of Symptoms of Depression in Men vs Women Analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Lisa A. Martin, PhD; Harold W. Neighbors, PhD; Derek M. Griffith, Abstract Excerpt: Until now, women have been diagnosed with depression twice as often as men. However, men reported higher rates of anger attacks/aggression, substance abuse, and risk taking compared with women. Analyses using the scale that included alternative, male-type symptoms of depression found that a higher proportion of men (26.3%) than women (21.9%) (P = .007) met criteria for depression. Analyses using the scale that included alternative and traditional depression symptoms found that men and women met criteria for depression in equal proportions: 30.6% of men and 33.3% of women (P = .57).

Exercise Stress Testing in Women

Exercise stress testing in women: going back to the basics.  Kohli, P., & Gulati, M.  The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding exercise stress testing in women, with a focus beyond ST-segment depression alone. It addition to interpretation of ECG changes with exercise, evaluation of exercise capacity, chronotropic index, heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR), blood pressure response, and Duke Treadmill Score (DTS) can be used to enhance the utility of exercise testing. The diagnostic and prognostic value of these non-ECG variables in women is reviewed.

Necessity of Gender Medicine

March 21, 2013
Gender medicine: a task for the third millennium. Baggio G, Corsini A, Floreani A, Giannini S, Zagonel V. Gender-specific medicine is the study of how diseases differ between men and women in terms of prevention, clinical signs, therapeutic approach, prognosis, psychological and social impact. It is a neglected dimension of medicine. In this review, authors point out some major issues in five enormous fields of medicine: cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), pharmacology, oncology, liver diseases and osteoporosis.

Clinical Implications of Sex Analyses in Studies

June 16, 2003
Expanding the frontiers of women’s health research–US style. Pinn, VW. Research on women’s health and sex and gender factors is providing the data with which to better arm the physician for possible variation in approaches to better approaches, drug dosages, or diagnostic practices not only for women but also men. the new knowledge is creating new challenges to ensure that future physicians possess a full understanding of how to provide gender-appropriate care.

Progress of Sex, Race, and Ethnicity in Clinical Trials

March 15, 2011
Inclusion, analysis, and reporting of sex and race/ethnicity in clinical trials: have we made progress? Geller, S. E., Koch, A., Pellettieri, B., & Carnes, M. (2011). . Journal of Women’s Health20(3), 315-320. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act of 1993 requires that NIH-funded clinical trials include women and minorities as participants; other federal agencies have adopted similar guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine the current level of compliance with these guidelines for the inclusion, analysis, and reporting of sex and race/ethnicity in federally funded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to compare the current level of compliance with that from 2004, which was reported previously.

Interaction of Nature and Nurture on Behavior and Perception

MAY 12, 2004
To an understanding of the biology of sex and gender differences:“an idea whose time has come”. Grumbach, M. M. Sex is the most common human polymorphism that affects health and illness through the life cycle. This perspective provides a brief overview of the importance of the critical interlinked interactions of nature (genes and sex hormones) and nurture (environment and experience) on behavior and perception. Differences in gene expression in the male and female appear in the early embryo, before differentiation of the fetal gonads into a testis or ovary. Gonadal differentiation results in a striking sex difference in the fetal sex steroid milieu and the phenotypic differences in the internal and external genital tracts that follows. Recent data provide evidence that in addition to the classic brain masculinizing effects of testosterone in the fetus, XX and XY brain cells show different patterns of gene expression even before gonadal differentiation. The X chromosome contains a higher number of genes that have a major role in the development of general cognitive ability. Further, we now know that estrogen formed mainly in extragonadal tissues has an important multifaceted role in boys at puberty and in men.

Women’s Health: An Evolving Mosaic

December 25, 2001
Women’s health: an evolving mosaic. Karney, P. Women’s health was described as “a patchwork quilt with gaps” in 1992. Since 1992, there have been increasing amounts of women’s health research, teaching, and new clinical initiatives at the interface between disciplines, extending throughout the life span. There are sex and gender differences between men and women in many domains.

Sex Differences in Coronary Artery Disease

August 2007
New insights into ischemic heart disease in women. Bellasi, A., Raggi, P., Merz, C. B., & Shaw, L. J.  Coronary artery disease is different in women than in men in its pathogenesis, symptoms, and prognosis. Compared with men, women have: as great a prevalence of coronary disease, at least in their older years; a higher death rate from coronary disease; worse outcomes after acute coronary events; different pathophysiologic mechanisms of coronary disease; different presentations and risk factors. Screening tests also differ in efficacy in men and women.

Mortality in Elderly Patients After Hip Fractures

January 20, 2011
Early and late mortality in elderly patients after hip fracture: a cohort study using administrative health databases in the Lazio region, Italy.Castronuovo, E., Pezzotti, P., Franzo, A., Di Lallo, D., & Guasticchi, G. Both clinical and organizational factors of acute care are associated with the risk of early mortality. As time passes, some of these factors tend to become less important while older age, male gender, the presence of cognitive problems and the presence of other comorbidities remain significant.

Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Women and Men

January 18, 2006
Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in women and men: a sex-specific meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Berger, J. S., Roncaglioni, M. C., Avanzini, F., Pangrazzi, I., Tognoni, G., & Brown, D. L.  For women and men, aspirin therapy reduced the risk of a composite of cardiovascular events due to its effect on reducing the risk of ischemic stroke in women and MI in men. Aspirin significantly increased the risk of bleeding to a similar degree among women and men.

Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Women and Men Update

March 17, 2009
Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events: an update of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Wolff, T., Miller, T., & Ko, S. Aspirin reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in men and strokes in women. Aspirin use increases the risk for serious bleeding events. CLINICAL GUIDELINES

Sex Differences in Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs

November 17, 2011
Sex-related differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-hypertensive drugs. Ueno, K., & Sato, H. Sex-specific differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have been reported to have important clinical consequences. In this review, some representative sex-specific differences in absorption and transporters (that is, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)), metabolic processes (that is, those that involve cytochrome P450 (CYP)), clearance (Cl) processes (for example, renal excretion or other pharmacokinetic parameters) and involvement of sex hormones (that is, estrogen and testosterone) in the regulation of some metabolic enzymes are introduced for each of the following categories of anti-hypertensive drugs: calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretic agents, and β-adrenergic-receptor blockers (β-blockers). In many cases, female sex is a risk factor for adverse effects or attenuated clinical responses because of lower Cl, smaller distribution volumes, higher activity of some metabolic enzymes (especially hepatic CYP3A4), or presence of sex hormones.

Pivotal WISE Study Delineates Sex Differences in Ischemic Cardiac Disease

February 2006
Insights from the NHLBI-Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study: Part I: gender differences in traditional and novel risk factors, symptom evaluation, and gender-optimized diagnostic strategies. Shaw, L. J., Merz, C. N. B., Pepine, C. J., Reis, S. E., Bittner, V., Kelsey, S. F., … & Rogers, W. J. The 2006 WISE Study (Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation), sponsored by the NHLBI, is arguably one of the most significant, pivotal studies which opened our eyes to sex differences in ischemic cardiac disease, which is commonly MI with Non Obstructive Coronary Arteries (MINOCA) in women. It pleads for education of clinicians on sex differences in not only symptoms (more likely to be fatigue, nausea, and jaw pain), but also in risk markers (high-sensitivity CRP), cardiac testing results (stress echocardiography), SPECT cardiac imaging (single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging), and treatment programs.

The Importance of Women’s Health Research IOM Report

Women’s Health Research: Progress, Pitfalls, and Promise: Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Smith Taylor, J.  Even though slightly over half of the U.S. population is female, medical research historically has neglected the health needs of women. However, over the past two decades, there have been major changes in government support of women’s health research–in policies, regulations, and the organization of research efforts. To assess the impact of these changes, Congress directed the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to ask the IOM to examine what has been learned from that research and how well it has been put into practice as well as communicated to both providers and women.


Sex and Gender Differences

Biology of Sex Differences

Biology of Sex Differences considers manuscripts on all aspects of the effects of sex on biology and disease. Sex has profound effects on physiology and the susceptibility to disease. The function of cells and organs depends on their sex, determined by the interplay among the genome and biological and social environments. The study of sex differences is a discipline in itself, with its own concepts and methods that apply across tissues. Biology of Sex Differences is the official journal of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, and a publication of the Society for Women’s Health Research.

Gender and the Genome

Gender and the Genome is a peer reviewed, open access journal that provides evidence-based original research, reviews, perspectives, and commentaries that illuminate the impact of biological sex on technology and its effects on human life. The journal is the official journal of the Foundation for Gender-Specific Medicinethe International Society for Gender-Specific Medicine, and the Israeli Society for Gender-and Sex Conscious Medicine. The Journal’s international editorial board is comprised of the most forward-thinking leaders in gender-specific medicine to engage the community of molecular biologists, engineers, ethicists, anthropologists, and legal experts in a dialogue about the nature and implications of 21st century technology.

Women’s Health with Gender Included

Journal of Women’s Health

The Journal of Women’s Health is the primary source of information for meeting the challenges of providing optimal health care for women throughout their lifespan. The Journal delivers cutting-edge advancements in diagnostic procedures, therapeutic protocols for the management of diseases, and innovative research in gender-based biology that impacts patient care and treatment.

Women’s Health Issues

Women’s Health Issues (WHI) is a peer-reviewed, bimonthly, multidisciplinary journal that publishes research and review manuscripts related to women’s health care and policy. As the official journal of the Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health, it is dedicated to improving the health and health care of all women throughout the lifespan and in diverse communities. The journal seeks to inform health services researchers, health care and public health professionals, social scientists, policymakers, and others concerned with women’s health.

Contact us at
And follow our Collaborative on social media!
Twitter Facebook