Defining Sex and Gender
“Sex” refers to biological differences between females and males, including chromosomes, sex organs, and endogenous hormonal profiles. “Gender” refers to socially constructed and enacted roles and behaviors which occur in a historical and cultural context and vary across societies and over time. All individuals act in many ways that fulfill the gender expectations of their society. With continuous interaction between sex and gender, health is determined by both biology and the expression of gender. — Definition according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH).
The terms sex and gender have often been used interchangeably and imprecisely even though they should not be. The terms refer to different things.Sex and Gender Influences on Health and Disease
Both sex and gender have an influence on health and disease via epigenetic processes, and on the provision of healthcare by practitioners and within health systems. Sex and gender influence cells via epigenetic processes. The National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women’s Health (NIH ORWH) site with links to health topics re: sex/gender differences, a handy infographic, and other resources